- Cisjordanie : quatre Israéliens blessés [mercredi] dans deux attaques (AFP)
"[...] Dans le centre d'Hébron (sud), deux Israéliens ont été blessés par une attaque au couteau et leur agresseur palestinien a été abattu par les forces israéliennes, a indiqué la police israélienne. L'attaque s'est produite dans un secteur de la ville où ont eu lieu de nombreuses attaques ces dernières semaines, a indiqué le porte-parole de la police Micky Rosenfeld. Une des victimes a été blessée sérieusement, l'autre légèrement, a-t-il dit.
L'armée israélienne a confirmé qu'un des deux blessés est un soldat, qui a été poignardé alors qu'il demandait ses papiers à un Palestinien dans la partie de la ville contrôlée par Israël. L'autre victime est le fils de l'ancienne députée Orit Strock, du parti nationaliste religieux Foyer juif, habitante d'Hebron. L'ancienne parlementaire a raconté à la radio militaire que son fils Yitzhak s'est jeté sur l'assaillant palestinien quand il a poignardé le soldat et a été blessé légèrement.
Plusieurs des attaques au couteau de ces dernières semaines ont eu lieu à Hébron, où les soldats israéliens assurent la protection de 500 [habitants] juifs vivant retranchés parmi 200.000 Palestiniens. L'assaillant Abdelrahmane Yusri Maswada, 21 ans, est le cousin de Ihab Zakariya Maswada, 21 ans également qui a été abattu lundi après avoir poignardé un Israélien à Hébron.
Dans la soirée, une voiture a été la cible de tirs sur une route proche de la ville palestinienne de Tulkarem (nord) faisant deux blessés ; un homme atteint sérieusement mais dont les jours ne sont pas en danger et une femme légèrement touchée, selon l'armée et les services de secours israéliens. Aucune information n'a été donnée sur l'auteur de cette attaque dont on ignore le sort.
Par ailleurs, des affrontements ont éclaté entre des Palestiniens et les forces de l'ordre israéliennes quand des soldats ont arrêté un responsable du Front démocratique de libération de la Palestine (FDLP, gauche) à son domicile dans la ville de Toubas, nord de la Cisjordanie, selon des sources policières palestiniennes. Les soldats ont encerclé puis perquisitionné la maison d'Iyad Mouslimani, qui a été arrêté puis emmené, des heurts ont alors éclaté entre jeunes et soldats. Trois Palestiniens ont été blessés par balles et des dizaines d'autres touchés par des gaz lacrymogènes, selon ces sources. [...]"
- Cisjordanie : 4 soldats israéliens blessés [jeudi] dans une attaque palestinienne (AFP) - ""Un suspect a lancé sa voiture contre un groupe de soldats avant de heurter un véhicule militaire, blessant quatre" d'entre eux, près de la [localité juive] de Beit Aryeh, dans le nord de la Cisjordanie". Vidéo plutôt impressionnante ici.
- Un Palestinien tué [vendredi] après avoir lancé sa voiture sur des soldats (Reuters) - "Un automobiliste palestinien a été tué vendredi après avoir tenté de renverser des soldats israéliens à un point de contrôle près d'Hébron".
- Un émeutier palestinien tué [vendredi] à Hébron lors d’affrontements avec l’armée (Times of Israel) - "Un émeutier palestinien a été tué en Cisjordanie vendredi après-midi lors d’affrontements avec les troupes israéliennes au nord de Hébron, selon les médias palestiniens" ; "Dans la bande de Gaza, des dizaines d’émeutiers ont participé à plusieurs manifestations violentes le long de la barrière de sécurité, lançant des pierres sur les troupes israéliennes et des pneus enflammés. Les forces de Tsahal ont réagi avec des moyens non létaux et dans plusieurs cas, ont tiré sur ce qu’ils appelaient être des instigateurs centraux".
- Le thème du sapin de l’université Al-Quds de cette année est le martyr (Times of Israel) - "Les images décorant l’arbre de l’université de Jérusalem-Est incluent des photos de Palestiniens tués en menant des attaques".
- Little girl encourages stabbing Jews on Palestinian Facebook page (Vidéo 1mn04) - Assez terrifiant et révoltant.
- Une fille palestinienne brandit un couteau dans une vidéo diffusée sur Facebook (i24) - "Dans la nouvelle vidéo, lorsqu'on lui a demandé "Que dis-tu à la jeunesse en Cisjordanie ?", la jeune fille brandit un couteau et répond : "Coup de couteau ! Coup de couteau ! Coup de couteau ! Coup de couteau !""
- Mahmoud Abbas chairs Fatah meeting that calls stabbers "heroes" (Elder of Ziyon) - JCPA: "The meeting began with readings of Surat Al-Fatihah in remembrance of the souls of the heroic martyrs, and it [the Central Committee] conveyed its condolences and appreciation to the families of the martyrs with hopes for the speedy recovery of the wounded, emphasizing its determination to continue to act in every way to have the prisoners freed and the bodies of the heroic martyrs returned".
- Fatah official: “Whoever succeeded in killing, this is a big thing” (PMW) - voir la vidéo ici.
"After mentioning by name two terrorists who in total murdered four Israelis, senior Fatah official Abbas Zaki praised all Palestinian attackers, and in particular those who succeeded to murder: “Whoever succeeded in killing, this is a big thing, and whoever [was killed but] succeeded in at least scaring the Israeli pedestrian is also a Martyr.” [Official PA TV, Oct. 31, 2015] Click to view.
According to Zaki, all those who attacked Israelis are “giants,” “leaders,” and “pioneers” and those who died attacking Israelis are “Martyrs.” Although terrorist Raed Jaradat did not “succeed” in killing anyone, but “only” stabbed and critically wounded an Israeli soldier, Zaki singled him out, stating that he is “just like” the murderers, i.e., just as honorable. Zaki exemplifies the PA policy Palestinian Media Watch has documented of turning terrorists into role models and heroes for society, stating that this stabber surely will have something named after him: “I believe that, Allah willing, something will be built and named after him [Raed]. When Palestine is liberated, Allah willing, he will have at least an institution named after him, and a statue [made] of him.” (see longer excerpt below)
Zaki made these statements during a special broadcast on official PA TV covering the transfer of the bodies of two terrorist stabbers, Raed Jaradat and Mahmoud Ghanimat. [...]"
- Where's the Coverage? Palestinian Official Shoots Israeli Soldier (CAMERA) - "The PA official, later identified as Mazen Hassan, was shot and killed after he got out of his vehicle at the Hizma checkpoint near the West Bank and began shooting at Israeli soldiers and civilians"; "The PA is committed to security cooperation with Israel as part of the 1990s Oslo diplomatic process that created it and allowed the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), previously designated a terror group by the United States and others, to relocate from Tunisia and establish limited self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Despite this requirement, PA security officials have a history of participating in or encouraging the very terror attacks they are supposed to help prevent".
- Rock-throwing dolls for Palestinian children misrepresented by PA (PMW)
"A container load of dolls holdings rocks in their raised hands (see picture above) and wearing Palestinian headscarves - keffiyehs - with the inscriptions "Jerusalem is ours" and "O Jerusalem, here we come" was intended for Palestinian Authority children to play with. However, the Israeli Customs Authority confiscated the dolls shipped from the United Arab Emirates as "inciting material" this week.
The official PA daily referred to the confiscation as the "Israeli war against children's dolls" [Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, Dec. 9, 2015] and pretended the problem was the Palestinian headscarf: "Israel confiscated 4,000 dolls whose faces were covered with a Palestinian keffiyeh!" The paper did not mention the fact that the doll is positioned to throw a rock and is promoting child violence. [...]"
Gaza & Hamas
- Deux Palestiniens tués [vendredi] lors de heurts avec l'armée israélienne (i24)
"Des affrontements ont eu lieu vendredi entre soldats israéliens et Palestiniens le long de la frontière entre Gaza et Israël. Les Palestiniens approchant la barrière de sécurité ont lancé des pierres vers les forces israéliennes et ont fait brûler des pneus. Les soldats ont riposté en utilisant des moyens de dispersions d'émeutes. Le ministère palestinien de la Santé a indiqué qu'un Palestinien a été tué par balles lors de ces affrontements.
Ces heurts ont éclaté après des défilés qui ont mobilisé des milliers de personnes dans plusieurs villes à l'appel du Hamas, le mouvement terroriste au pouvoir dans la bande de Gaza, marquait son 28ème anniversaire. "La meilleure façon de libérer la Palestine est de résister par tous les moyens, en premier lieu, par le combat armé", a martelé Khalil al-Haya, membre de la direction du Hamas. [...]"
- Independent military experts judge Israel's Gaza campaign 'reasonable, lawful and entirely justified' (Jewish Chronicle) - "HLMG co-ordinator Davis Lewin said many in the group even feared that Israel had created an unrealistically high standard for protecting civilians".
"Israel fought “an exemplary campaign” during the Gaza conflict last year, an independent group of prominent military personnel and a former United Nations war crimes prosecutor has concluded.
A report by the High Level Military Group (HLMG), made up of 11 former military and intelligence leaders from five continents, said Israel operated “within the parameters of the Law of Armed Conflict” and had even “in some respects exceeded the highest standards we set for our own nations’ militaries,” The group unanimously agreed that Israel's military response was reasonable.
The report - called An Assessment of the 2014 Gaza Conflict said that “no country would accept the threat against its civilian population" presented by the rockets fired by Hamas. “Israel’s efforts were entirely justified, appropriately conceived and lawfully carried out, and necessary in the defence of that country’s national security.” The study was compiled this summer during six fact-finding and research trips. The former officers, who held important positions in the US, UK, German, Italian, Spanish, French, Indian, Australian and Colombian defence forces, said they had enjoyed a level of access to military information which was “undoubtedly in excess of what our own countries would afford in similar circumstances.”
The HLMG, including the previous chairman of the NATO Military Committee Klaus Naumann, condemned Hamas for “flagrantly disregarding” international laws and committing “war crimes... such as the summary execution of those it accused of collaborating with Israel”. They found that “the entire military machinery of Hamas was embedded in civilian locations, private homes and a plethora of sensitive sites such as medical facilities, mosques and schools”, and that this strategy was aimed at damaging Israel’s international reputation. To this end, “Hamas actively sought the death of its own citizens [and] conducted a highly effective information campaign which included coercion of Gaza-based journalists”.
The group placed blame for the thousands of casualties on Hamas, stating that the “terrorist-army hybrid” formed by the Gazan governing party “broke every single ceasefire during the conflict, whether official or humanitarian”. “The vast majority of casualties could have been avoided had Hamas heeded Israel’s repeated appeals through third party intermediaries prior and during the conflict to de-escalate.”
HLMG co-ordinator Davis Lewin said many in the group even feared that Israel had created an unrealistically high standard for protecting civilians. “Some of the precautions were so extensive, they worried about if these became norms in international law in terms of having to fight their own battles elsewhere. What could happen to them if Israel went above and beyond with innovations and still got slandered in the international community? They're very concerned that those organisations may one day apply the same standards to them.” [...]"
- World military leaders slam @Amnesty, praise IDF (Elder of Ziyon) - "You will never learn this from reading reports from the UN or Amnesty or HRW. They write their reports with the conclusion that Israel acted recklessly as the initial premise and all evidence is chosen to support that premise. In fact, the HLMG points out that the "human rights" NGOs have zero military expertise, which is a necessity in deciding what is legal or not in warfare".
"[...] The actual report includes some details that, as far as I know, were not previously made public. This section shows the amount of care the IDF uses before choosing to bomb a target:
"186. A comprehensive protocol exists in the IDF to assert LOAC [Law Of Armed Conflict] compliance during active hostilities, no matter how complex the battlefield. This was clearly evidenced during our fact-finding. In particular the HLMG was able to consider in detail IDF targeting practices and those as related to operating around sensitive sites, two of the most controversial aspects of Operation Protective Edge.
187. Where the IDF prepares pre-planned targets for attack against military objectives, it follows a multi-stage process for approval in order to ensure LOAC compliance. The procedure consists of the collection of intelligence about the potential target in order to ascertain that it constitutes a valid military objective and that the conditions for proportionality are met, as well as to assess any civilians, infrastructure or sensitive sites that may be affected by the attack. Commanders then determine objectives in regard to the target on the basis of this information. Here conditions can include the extent of destruction warranted, the necessity of enemy presence and similar considerations. Separately, operational planners may also advise on options for a specific attack, geared towards the further minimisation of collateral damage for example. Officers then examine all parameters and make a professional assessment of the target. This includes a binding assessment by a legal adviser about the legality of the attack and any necessary stipulations. Commanders may add additional conditions beyond legal considerations; and the input provided into the decision by the various different organisations, such as intelligence or operational planning, is updated and re-evaluated on a timely basis in advance of any attack. A senior commander will ultimately review the information before an attack and approve it, if necessary subject to certain conditions; suspend action pending further input regarding parameters that are insufficiently clear; or decide not to attack the target at that time.
188. The process of ensuring LOAC compliance of IDF attacks is in most cases aided by what the IDF refers to as a Target Card, a standardised document which centralises all the above information into one place so that the commander may make an informed decision. The Target Card contains relevant intelligence, including imagery, an assessment of the military value of the target, options regarding operational plans as well as a binding legal opinion regarding the intended attack’s compliance with LOAC.
189. Some of the members of the HLMG expressed explicit concerns that these procedures are excessive, and that they are not necessary, particularly when the IDF is educated in the application of the LOAC throughout their training. They expressed concern in particular that these elaborate procedures may establish an unwarranted precedent that yields significant advantage to an adversary that intentionally violates LOAC to achieve tactical, operational, and strategic advantage.
190. Where the acute realities and necessities of combat prevent real-time legal input and do not allow for such a deliberative targeting process, for example during intense air and ground combat operations or other specific situations where targets are highly time sensitive, commanders are instructed to be diligently reliant on their training, specific relevant directives and other relevant actors to ensure their compliance with all aspects of LOAC. In relation to so-called sensitive sites - that is, objects that are considered to have special protection from attack under LOAC or warrant special consideration on account of policy decisions, such as for example, hospitals, schools, religious sites, large food factories, power stations and UN facilities - detailed regulations exist in the IDF to ensure their appropriate safeguarding. Notice of the location of sensitive sites is distributed to all levels of command, and updated on a real-time basis by a specific officer tasked with ensuring the real-time data is up to date. This data is widely accessible, including to relevant commanders in the field. There are limited circumstances in which sensitive sites may be damaged, either on account of an attack in their proximity, or directly in circumstances where they are legitimate military targets on account of their use for military purposes thus invalidating their protected status. These instances are governed by detailed IDF regulations that mandate precautionary measures and require attacks to be granted specific approval by a high ranking officer. Depending on the type of target and attack, this approval can go all the way to the Chief of Staff and, in certain extremely sensitive cases, to the Minister of Defence and even the Prime Minister."
Here's a copy of a Target Card (probably translated from Hebrew).
You will never learn this from reading reports from the UN or Amnesty or HRW. They write their reports with the conclusion that Israel acted recklessly as the initial premise and all evidence is chosen to support that premise. In fact, the HLMG points out that the "human rights" NGOs have zero military expertise, which is a necessity in deciding what is legal or not in warfare - and that these groups misstatements of international law actually have severe ramifications for the free world:
"Without seeking to deny the necessity or discourage in any way the practice of appropriate formal and informal checks and balances on warfare in the international system, we further note that in reviewing commentary from the United Nations Human Rights Council, a number of NGOs such as Amnesty International, and sections of the media commentary on the 2014 Gaza Conflict, there are stark, unwarranted condemnations of the IDF’s conduct that do not accord with our own examination. We believe that where ideological motivation can be discounted, the principal reason for this disparity is the absence of the appropriate military and legal expertise and judgement in much of this commentary. Our concern with this matter stems primarily from an appreciation that the misapplication of outcome-based assessments made on the basis of incomplete information and incorrect interpretation of the laws and norms governing warfare pose a concern to all democratic nations."
Beyond that, the HLMG says (and provides documentation for) this:
"It is further our view that in the overall conduct of its campaign, the IDF not only met its obligations under the Law of Armed Conflict, but often exceeded them, both on the battlefield and in the humanitarian relief efforts that accompanied its operation. In many cases where the fighting was concerned, this came at significant tactical cost to the IDF. It fought under restrictive Rules of Engagement and it is obvious that instances existed throughout the conflict where the IDF did not attack lawful military objectives on account of a deliberate policy of restraint. The IDF also used a number of highly innovative tactics over and above the necessities of the precautions required by the Law of Armed Conflict. It further used its formidable intelligence capability in an effort to contain its action as closely as possible to Hamas’s assets and protect the civilian population amid which these were purposely and unlawfully embedded. Intelligence is not infallible however, nor is it possible to preclude completely preclude civilian casualties through precautions enacted in compliance with the Law of Armed Conflict."
Critics will point out that this study was facilitated by the Friends of Israel Initiative and the director of that group - Rafael L. Bardají - is also one of the members of the HLMG, with the qualifications of being a former National Security Adviser in Spain and many other impressive achievements. But the other members of the group cannot be said to be biased; all have formidable experience in the military and in national defense for their respective countries. The report itself is detailed and does not have a whiff of bias in its presentation. But since Israel's critics have little to stand on, they will dismiss this because it is sponsored by a Zionist group, while pretending that Amnesty and HRW aren't biased.
I am unaware of anyone with significant military leadership experience who has criticized Israel's conduct in Gaza. (And, no, I don't include John Kerry in that category.)"
"Processus de paix"
- The Jewish Nakba (Jerusalem Post editorial) - "The time has come for the world to recognize that the displacement of Palestinians and Jews as a result of Israel’s War of Independence against a half dozen invading Arab countries amounted to an exchange of populations, and to classify it so retroactively, so we can move on to making peace".
"On November 30, the Israeli Mission to the UN held an event to honor the untold stories of some 850,000 Jewish refugees who were forced to flee their native Muslim countries following the creation of the State of Israel in 1948.
This annual commemoration could become a key to resuming peace talks with the Palestinians, if it is utilized to resolve the refugee issue – Palestinian and Jewish refugees – once and for all and remove it from the agenda, where it has been another obstacle to overcome.
This is not going to be easy. While there have been several legislative gains on the issue, both in the US and Israel, the Palestinian propaganda juggernaut has persuaded world public opinion that the term “refugee” is synonymous with the term “Palestinian.” A massive counter effort is required, not by the usual perpetrators of the unfortunately named “public diplomacy,” but by public relations professionals.
The Palestinian Nakba narrative must be seen in direct parallel to the Jewish Nakba. The basic facts of the history of this conflict must become known so that the world recognizes that two peoples suffered and were uprooted.
To do less would be to accept wholesale the narrative of unique suffering that the Palestinian national movement has been using as a propaganda weapon for decades.
More to the point, the Palestinians have made a growth industry out of refugeeism. The United Nations estimates that, upon the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, 726,000 Palestinians became refugees. In 2012, the number of registered patrilineal descendants of the original “Palestine refugees” was estimated to be 4,950,000, according to UNRWA.
No other people in the world are considered fourth-generation refugees. This is one delusion that must be dispelled before this issue can be resolved. Unfortunately, it has become part of a basic package of Palestinian delusions that must also be overcome. The principal one is that we don’t belong here from time immemorial; another would require the Palestinians to accept responsibility for causing the Palestinian and Jewish refugee problems in the first place, and accept UN Resolution 181 that was meant to create the original two-state solution.
According to Jews for Justice from Arab Countries, at the same time Palestinians were suffering their Nakba, Arab and Muslim states displaced 856,000 Jewish citizens, in many cases seizing their personal and communal assets.
Around two-thirds settled in Israel, arriving as penniless as were the Palestinian refugees moving in the opposite direction. The difference, to the unacknowledged shame of the Muslim world, was that Palestine refugees were kept in camps as a weapon against Israel, while Israel welcomed Jewish refugees as new and productive citizens. [...]
UN Ambassador Danny Danon recently pointed a finger at the world body for differentiating between Palestinian refugees and Jewish refugees from the same conflict. Jewish refugees, he noted, “do not have a special UN agency, and several UN organizations acting as a lobby on their behalf.”
The time has come for the world to recognize that the displacement of Palestinians and Jews as a result of Israel’s War of Independence against a half dozen invading Arab countries amounted to an exchange of populations, and to classify it so retroactively, so we can move on to making peace."
- Head of Al Azhar U tells students to read the "Protocols of Elders of Zion" (Elder of Ziyon)
"[...] Today, we can see exactly how enlightened Al Azhar University is. The president of Al-Azhar University, Dr. Abd El-Hay Azab, while re-opening the university dormitory following last year's violence, demanded students read the Protocols of the Elders of Zion to get familiar with conspiracies the nation is facing.
"I swear to God there is a new colonial war that is targeting our youth in order to destroy your country and homes with your hands," he said, warning the youth against "institutions of fitna" (other religious institutions with different agendas), and requesting the read the Protocols of the Elders of Zion to fortify themselves against such conspiracies. He also said "Zionists are working for the security of Israel through [creating] instability in the region, particularly Egypt," saying that this was a conspiracy against all Muslims and pointing out that these conspiracies against religion in general and against Al-Azhar in particular, as they are spreading the idea that Al-Azhar is stronghold of terrorism."
- Yémen : la coalition a visé des écoles (AFP) - "Dans un rapport intitulé "Nos enfants sont bombardés", Amnesty affirme avoir enquêté sur cinq frappes aériennes contre des écoles, entre août et octobre 2015, qui ont tué cinq civils et en ont blessé 14, dont quatre enfants".
- We are being deceived on Iran, Alex Fishman (Ynet) - "Five days before the deadline for implementing the deal with the West: Intelligence officials let on that Iran is not meeting its obligations to dismantle its nuclear program".
"Following the signing of the nuclear deal in July, the sanctions against Iran will be lifted within the next seven days, on December 15. But Iran is not meeting its obligations to dismantle its nuclear capability as per its agreement with six world powers. This revelation was confirmed by Western intelligence officials who have been following Iran's dismantling of its nuclear program. Nonetheless, in Israel there is no mistaken illusion: the sanctions on Iran will indeed be lifted next week, at the appointed time, and moreover while world powers try to blur the fact that this process will take place despite Tehran's failure to honor its commitments.
According to the agreement, the Iranians have until December 15 to dismantle two-thirds of its active centrifuges, so that they will not have more than 6,000 old-generation centrifuges in their possession. All the advanced centrifuges will be taken apart, the stockpiles of enriched uranium (up to the grade of 3.6 percent) will be reduced from 7,000kg to 300kg and the medium-grade enriched uranium will be destroyed. The Iranians are also obligated to make engineering changes to their plutonium creation at its Arak reactor, so that it will not be able to create military-grade material. They must also allow the continuous presence of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors at their nuclear facilities.
None of these clauses have been fulfilled. Yedioth Ahronoth has received information from Western intelligence officials showing with that the pace the Iranians are working at, they will only meet their obligations sometimes during the second half of 2016 – and perhaps even later.
However, this seems not to make any difference to the IAEA. Reuters news agency revealed the draft resolution of the IAEA board of governors, which sets out that "all the activities in the road-map for the clarification of past and present outstanding issues regarding Iran's nuclear program were implemented in accordance with the agreed schedule and further notes that this closes the Board's consideration of this item."
In contrast to the board of directors, however, IAEA inspectors – those who are actually supposed to be confirming whether Iran is meeting its obligations – revealed this week that Iran is in fact not keeping to its commitment to give a full report of the military components that its nuclear project had in the past. This report was another requirement of the nuclear agreement. [...]"
- L'Eglise catholique ne cherchera plus à convertir les juifs (AFP)
"Une commission théologique du Vatican a estimé, jeudi 10 décembre, que les juifs pouvaient obtenir le salut éternel sans devenir chrétiens, et a invité les catholiques à ne pas chercher à les convertir. Cinquante ans après la déclaration "Nostra Aetate" ayant mis fin à des siècles de mépris et ouvert le dialogue, cette commission théologique est ainsi allée un peu plus loin que Benoît XVI, qui s'était prononcé dans un livre en 2011 contre tout effort pour convertir les juifs.
"Bien que les juifs ne puissent pas croire en Jésus Christ comme rédempteur universel, ils ont une part dans le salut", a assuré la commission dans un document, sans s'avancer sur le processus. L'Eglise considère en effet que le salut ne peut venir que par la foi en Jésus, fils de Dieu, mort et ressuscité, et que les chrétiens sont appelés à répandre cette foi dans le monde entier.
Mais les catholiques doivent comprendre cet appel "d'une manière différente" pour les juifs et témoigner envers eux de leur foi "avec humilité et sensibilité, reconnaissant que les juifs sont porteurs de la parole de Dieu et gardant à l'esprit la grande tragédie de la Shoah", a expliqué la commission, dans une allusion à la responsabilité de l'enseignement de l'Eglise dans le développement de l'antisémitisme en Europe. "Cela signifie concrètement que l'Eglise catholique ne mène ni n'encourage aucune mission institutionnelle tournée spécifiquement vers les juifs", a insisté la commission."
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