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16 septembre 2016 5 16 /09 /septembre /2016 10:52

France


- Marwan Barghouthi célébré à la Fête de l’Humanité (Times of Israel)
http://fr.timesofisrael.com/marwan-barghouthi-celebre-a-la-fete-de-lhumanite/
"La Fête de l’Humanité avait lieu du 9 au 11 septembre dernier à la Courneuve. Organisée chaque année depuis 1930 par le journal L’Humanité, cette fête est à la fois un événement politique et culturel. Elle réunit des représentants de la gauche et de l’extrême gauche française, notamment le Parti communiste.
Dans son édition 2016, l’Association France Palestine Solidarité avait organisé différents débats concernant notamment les actions du mouvement BDS et les implantations israéliennes. A cette occasion, l’Association France Palestine a accueilli plusieurs personnalités telles que Aïda Touma-Sliman, députée arabe à la Knesset, ou encore Charaf Barghouthi, l’un des fils du terroriste palestinien Marwan Barghouthi.
Ce dernier a été célébré lors de la fête de l’Humanité comme le Nelson Mandela palestinien. Le maire de Stains, Azzédine Taïbi, qui a fait de Marwan Barghouthi un citoyen d’honneur de sa ville, était présent à la fête de l’Humanité, durant laquelle une banderole à l’effigie de ce dernier avait était déployée. [...]
Marwan Barghouthi, actuellement condamné à perpétuité, s’est engagé dès son plus jeune âge auprès du Fatah. Il s’est fait arrêter une première fois par Israël à 18 ans. Il est considéré comme l’un des principaux meneurs de la première Intifada en 1987, année durant laquelle il sera expulsé en Jordanie. Il ne reviendra en Israël qu’après la signature des accords d’Oslo en 1994.
Il participe à la seconde Intifada en tant que chef du Tanzim, la branche armée du Fatah. Il deviendra l’homme le plus recherché d’Israël. Barghouthi a été condamné en 2004 pour cinq meurtres et tentatives de meurtres dans une entreprise terroriste sous son commandement, y compris pour avoir autorisé et organisé l’attentat du Sea Food Market à Tel Aviv dans lequel trois civils furent tués. [...]"
- Stand AFPS - Fête de l’Humanité 2016 (AFPS) - "Le deuxième débat du samedi, animé par Jean-Paul Roche, posait la question, de savoir ce qu’il en est du « processus de fascisation » qui semble à l’œuvre, de l’aveu même de responsables de l’establishment israélien" ; "Le débat du dimanche, animé par Taoufiq Tahani, invitait à réfléchir au développement dans notre pays de la campagne internationale BDS" ; "Il est important de noter qu’une nouvelle fois la Palestine était bien présente en maints endroits de la fête, et jusque sur la grande scène avec la prise de parole de Waleed Assaf et les messages de solidarité à Marwan Barghouthi toujours portés par les acclamations des participants".
http://www.france-palestine.org/Stand-AFPS-Fete-de-l-Humanite-2016

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Israël

- Des milliers de Palestiniens goûtent aux plaisirs de la plage en Israël (Times of Israel) - "Des milliers de Palestiniens de Cisjordanie ont pu profiter mardi de la plage à Tel Aviv après avoir reçu d’Israël des permis de visite à l’occasion de la grande fête musulmane de l’Aïd al-Adha. Des milliers de Palestiniens ont célébré la fête du Sacrifice en se réunissant autour de barbecues, en nageant dans la Méditerranée ou en profitant du soleil sur la plage au nord de Jaffa, quartier touristique de Tel Aviv. On pouvait notamment voir des Palestiniennes en burkinis s’amuser dans l’eau ou sur le sable avec leurs enfants, aux côtés d’Israéliennes en bikinis et d’étrangers".
http://fr.timesofisrael.com/des-milliers-de-palestiniens-goutent-aux-plaisirs-de-la-plage-en-israel/

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Gaza & Hamas

- Après un tir de mortier, Israël frappe Gaza (Times of Israel) - "L’aviation israélienne a frappé plusieurs cibles du Hamas dans la bande de Gaza dans la nuit de mercredi à jeudi, en réponse à un obus de mortier qui avait été tiré mercredi soir dans le sud d’Israël depuis l’enclave palestinienne".
http://fr.timesofisrael.com/apres-un-tir-de-mortier-israel-frappe-gaza/

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"Processus de paix"

- Abbas à Netanyahu : c’est Israël qui opère un « nettoyage ethnique » (Times of Israel)
http://fr.timesofisrael.com/abbas-a-netanyahu-cest-israel-qui-opere-un-nettoyage-ethnique/
"[...] Lors de son discours pour l’ouverture de l’Aïd dimanche soir, Abbas a fustigé le gouvernement du Premier ministre Benjamin Netanyahu, quelques jours après la diffusion de la vidéo postée par le Premier ministre où il a accusé le président de l’AP de vouloir pratiquer un nettoyage ethnique.
« Israël est isolé sur la scène internationale parce qu’il ne souhaite pas faire ne serait-ce qu’un pas vers la paix. Israël continue de construire des implantations, de profaner des lieux saints et de faire du nettoyage ethnique », a déclaré Abbas, selon la Dixième chaîne. Il a également semblé accuser Israël de meurtres prémédités sur des Palestiniens.
Dans la vidéo postée sur Facebook et Twitter vendredi dernier et ayant suscité la polémique, Netanyahu a dénoncé ce qu’il a dit être la volonté de l’AP, la création d’un futur état Palestinien vide de juif, appelant ainsi ce souhait « d’un nettoyage ethnique ». [...]"

- Palestinian scout instructor praised murderer of 3: Follow his path (PMW) - voir la vidéo (3mn40) ici.
http://www.palwatch.org/main.aspx?fi=157&doc_id=18760
"As Palestinian Media Watch has documented, the Jerusalem Scout Commission of the Palestinian Scouts and Guides Association (English - Palestinian Scout Association - PSA), which is a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM), recently held a course named after terrorist Baha Alyan who murdered 3 Israelis on a bus in Jerusalem in October last year.
A 30-minute long video from the closing ceremony of the “Martyr Baha Alyan Course” posted on the Jerusalem District Scout Commission’s Facebook page shows course instructor Muhammad Al-Dahdar glorifying murderer Baha Alyan, and expressing the hope that all the 250,000 scouts in the Palestinian Scout Association “are following Baha’s path.” After this statement, Al-Dahdar explicitly says he is speaking “in the name of the Palestinian Scouts and Guides Association”. [...]"

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Syrie

- Syrie : le conflit a fait plus de 300.000 morts (AFP) - "La guerre en Syrie a fait plus de 300.000 morts depuis son déclenchement en mars 2011, a indiqué aujourd'hui l'Observatoire syrien des droits de l'Homme (OSDH), en faisant état de près 9000 personnes tuées en plus d'un mois".
http://www.lefigaro.fr/flash-actu/2016/09/13/97001-20160913FILWWW00137-syrie-le-conflit-a-fait-plus-de-300000-morts.php

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Europe

- Anti-Semitism and the British Left, Dave Rich (The New York Times) - "Labour had once been Britain’s most pro-Zionist party. This began to change when support for Palestinian statehood entered party policy. Mr. Corbyn arrived as a new member of Parliament in 1983 as a sponsor of the Labour Movement Campaign for Palestine, a new group that was pledged to “eradicate Zionism” from the party and saw Israel as a colonial implant in the Middle East. Rather than being a legitimate expression of Jewish national longing, Zionism was then labeled a racist ideology akin to apartheid".
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/12/opinion/anti-semitism-and-the-british-left.html
"[...] A year into Mr. Corbyn’s tenure, there is no trust and precious little dialogue between the Labour leader and Britain’s Jews. The country’s chief rabbi, Ephraim Mirvis, has spoken of Labour’s “severe” problem of anti-Semitism — a problem that Jonathan Arkush, the president of the Board of Deputies of British Jews, the community’s leading representative body, says Mr. Corbyn is loath to tackle. [...]
For many Corbyn supporters, talk of Labour anti-Semitism is a smear intended to silence advocacy for Palestinians. This segment of party members tends also to subscribe to a worldview that blames the United States and its allies — foremost among them, Israel — for all that is wrong in the world.
This anti-American, anti-imperialist strain of the British left has deep roots, but the 2003 Iraq war gave it a new impetus, and opened up a broad rift in the Labour Party. On one side are supporters of the Blairite legacy that includes a warm embrace of Israel and of Labour Zionists; on the other stand Mr. Corbyn and other veterans of the Stop the War Coalition. Despite the initial mass protests against the Iraq war, the coalition was run by an activist core of far-left groups like the Socialist Workers Party allied with Islamists like the Muslim Association of Britain. For this alliance, a visceral objection to Israel’s existence was a key point of unity.
The Muslim Association of Britain has been described by a government minister as the British “representative” of the international Muslim Brotherhood organization. The Palestinian branch of the Brotherhood is Hamas, the radical group that governs Gaza — and which Mr. Corbyn has praised for its commitment to “peace and social justice and political justice.” This is not the only case of Mr. Corbyn’s appearing to align himself with Islamism: From 2009 to 2012, he was a paid host on the Iranian state-owned Press TV.
For many British Jews and others, Mr. Corbyn thus personifies a tolerance among parts of the left for reactionary Islamists that is at best naïve, at worst malign — not least because it overlooks Islamism’s history of murderous repression toward democratic socialists in Muslim-majority countries.
Labour had once been Britain’s most pro-Zionist party. This began to change when support for Palestinian statehood entered party policy. Mr. Corbyn arrived as a new member of Parliament in 1983 as a sponsor of the Labour Movement Campaign for Palestine, a new group that was pledged to “eradicate Zionism” from the party and saw Israel as a colonial implant in the Middle East. Rather than being a legitimate expression of Jewish national longing, Zionism was then labeled a racist ideology akin to apartheid.
At the same time, Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative government included a record number of Jewish ministers. Most British Jews had long since moved on from their origins in a prewar immigrant working class, and many among the new suburban Jewish middle class were attracted to Mrs. Thatcher’s entrepreneurial capitalism. According to the historian Geoffrey Alderman, “Anglo-Jewish political attitudes and loyalties, which were substantially Liberal for much of the 19th century and substantially Labour in the mid-20th, are now substantially Conservative.”
This may be of little electoral consequence to Labour, since Jewish voters influence the outcome in only a handful of parliamentary seats. In any case, the Corbyn project seems more directed at molding an ideologically pure movement than winning power at the next general election in 2020.
Yet there remains a strong progressive tradition among Jews that now has no political home. Their alienation from Labour is an ill omen: Whether British Jews ever feel they can return to Labour will give a strong indication about the future direction and character of the party as a whole."

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Point de vue

- New research paper: ‘Unsettled: A Global Study of Settlements in Occupied Territories’, Eugene Kontorovich (professor at Northwestern University School of Law, and expert on constitutional and international law) - "First, the migration of people into occupied territory is a near-ubiquitous feature of extended belligerent occupations. Second, no occupying power has ever taken any measures to discourage or prevent such settlement activity, nor has any occupying power ever expressed opinio juris suggesting that it is bound to do so. Third, and perhaps most strikingly, in none of these situations have the international community or international organizations described the migration of persons into the occupied territory as a violation of Art. 49(6) [of Geneva Conventions]".
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2016/09/12/new-research-paper-unsettled-a-global-study-of-settlements-in-occupied-territories
"My new working paper, “Unsettled: A Global Study of Settlements in Occupied Territories,” is now available on SSRN.
Imagine that someone (a scholar or a diplomat) wanted to understand how the general prohibition on aggression in the U.N. Charter was interpreted in international law. What do the general words of Art. 2(4) mean in practice? To figure out what Art. 2(4) means, he studies the Indian invasion and annexation of Portuguese territories in 1961. Examining this one case and the international reaction to it, he would conclude that the use of force and annexation of territory are permissible in international law.
Of course, this understanding would be deeply mistaken, because the Goa incident itself was highly anomalous. Without looking at other cases, from the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait to the Russian takeover of Crimea, one would misunderstand how states really interpret the provision. And that is why international law scholars, like lawyers generally, do not try to tease legal rules out of one particular case, but try to discern the pattern in the entire set of cases. Making law from one case risks serious error.
Yet that is exactly what happens with Art. 49(6) of the Fourth Geneva Convention, the provision that, loosely speaking, restricts settlements in occupied territory. The provision itself is quite obscure and has never been applied in any war crimes case. Thus, looking at state practice would be particularly useful to understand the scope of its meaning.
Yet scholars and humanitarian groups have only sought to understand its meaning through the lens of one case, that of Israel. If there were no other situations to look at, this would be understandable. But, as I show in my new research paper, settlement activity is fairly ubiquitous in occupations of contiguous territory. Yet state practice in these other situations has not been used to inform an understanding of the meaning of Art. 49(6).
My article, to stay with the analogy, goes past Goa, and looks at all the relevant situations. One basic conclusion is that the Israeli settlement situation is to Geneva Convention IV Art. 49(6) what India’s takeover of Goa is to Art. 2(4) of the U.N. Charter — an outlier that does not capture the broad run of state practice and thus misrepresents the actual rules of international law.
It is long (67 pages), so here is the abstract:
"This Article provides the first comprehensive, global examination of state and international practice bearing on Article 49(6) of the Fourth Geneva Convention, which provides that an “Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies.” This provision is a staple of legal and diplomatic international discussions of the Arab-Israeli conflict, and serves as the basis for criticism of Israeli settlement policy.
Despite its frequent invocation in the Israeli context, scholars have never examined – or even considered – how the norm has been interpreted and applied in any other occupation context in the post-WWII era. For example, the International Committee of the Red Cross’s (ICRC) influential Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law lists 107 instances of national practice and UN practice applying or interpreting the prohibition, and all but two relate to Israel. Many questions exist about the scope and application of Art. 49(6)’s prohibition on “transfer,” but they have generally been answered on purely theoretically.
To better understand what Art. 49(6) does in fact demand, this Article closely examines its application in all other cases in which it could apply. Many of the settlement enterprises studied in this Article have never been discussed or documented. All of these situations involved the movement of settlers into the occupied territory, in numbers ranging from thousands to hundreds of thousands. Indeed, perhaps every prolonged occupation of contiguous habitable territory has resulted in significant settlement activity.
Clear patterns emerge from this systematic study of state practice. Strikingly, the state practice paints a picture that is significantly inconsistent with the prior conventional wisdom concerning Art. 49(6). First, the migration of people into occupied territory is a near-ubiquitous feature of extended belligerent occupations. Second, no occupying power has ever taken any measures to discourage or prevent such settlement activity, nor has any occupying power ever expressed opinio juris suggesting that it is bound to do so. Third, and perhaps most strikingly, in none of these situations have the international community or international organizations described the migration of persons into the occupied territory as a violation of Art. 49(6). Even in the rare cases in which such policies have met with international criticism, it has not been in legal terms. This suggests that the level of direct state involvement in “transfer” required to constitute an Art. 49(6) violation may be significantly greater than previously thought. Finally, neither international political bodies nor the new governments of previously occupied territories have ever embraced the removal of illegally transferred civilian settlers as an appropriate remedy.
The deeper understanding – based on a systematic survey of all available state practice – of the prohibition on settlements should inform legal discussions of the Arab-Israeli- conflict, including potential investigations into such activity by the International Criminal Court. More broadly, the new understanding of Art. 49(6) developed here can also shed significant light on the proper treatment of several ongoing occupations, from Western Sahara and Northern Cyprus, to the Russian occupations of Ukraine and Georgia, whose settlement policies this Article is the first to document."
I wil
l be writing more about various aspects of my study in the coming weeks. They turn out to be relevant to numerous legal and policy debates, from the question of “natural growth” in settlements, to how to define “settlers,” to the proper international reaction to Russia’s settlement policies, which, surprisingly, this article appears to be the first to describe.
To anticipate a common response, the point of this study is not to demonstrate double standards regarding Israel, which is fairly banal. Some critics have put it more sharply, as an attempt to “change the subject.” Rather, the point is to understand the scope and meaning of the relevant international laws. Looking at all relevant state practice is, for this purpose, not changing the subject. It is the subject."

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